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Distribution and DOE 2016


  • What are the types of transformers affected by DOE 2016 and NRCan 2019?
  • Are there any transformers exempt from this legislation?

      As defined by DOE 10 CFR 431.192 a Distribution transformer means a transformer that—

      • Has an input voltage of 34.5 kV or less;
      • Has an output voltage of 600 V or less;
      • Is rated for operation at a frequency of 60 Hz; and
      • Has a capacity of 10 kVA to 2500 kVA for liquid-immersed units and 15 kVA to 2500 kVA for dry-type units.

      These are the transformers subjected to the DOE 2016 requirements.

      Exceptions are defined by the same DOE 10 CFR 431.192.(5):

      • The term “distribution transformer” does not include a transformer that is an:
      1. Autotransformer;
      2. Drive (isolation) transformer;
      3. Grounding transformer;
      4. Machine-tool (control) transformer;
      5. Non-ventilated transformer;
      6. Rectifier transformer;
      7. Regulating transformer;
      8. Sealed transformer;
      9. Special-impedance transformer;
      10. Testing transformer;
      11. Transformer with tap range of 20 percent or more;
      12. Uninterruptible power supply transformer; or
      13. Welding transformer.

      Drive (isolation) transformer means a transformer that:

      1. Isolates an electric motor from the line;
      2. Accommodates the added loads of drive-created harmonics; and
      3. Is designed to withstand the additional mechanical stresses resulting from an alternating current adjustable frequency motor drive or a direct current motor drive.

  • What are the Energy Efficiency levels mandated by DOE as of January 1st 2016?

      The US Department of Energy (DOE) has regulated the energy efficiency level of low-voltage (LV) dry-type distribution transformers in US since 2007, and liquid-immersed and medium-voltage (MV) dry-type distribution transformers since 2010.

      DOE’s CFR (Code of Federal Regulation) title 10, part 431 defines the current energy efficiency standards for distribution transformers sold in US also known as TP1 energy efficiency levels as adopted by NEMA. Effective Jan. 1st 2016 DOE’s CFR 10 p.431 will require new higher levels of Energy Efficiency for transformers installed in any US territory as published in the Federal Register Vol. 78, No. 75 on April 18, 2013.

      Any Distribution transformer manufactured on or after Jan. 1st 2016 and sold in any US state will have to comply with the new energy efficiency levels defined by this document.

      Q2: What are the types of transformers affected?

      The three types of distribution transformers covered by the standard are: low-voltage dry-type, liquid-immersed, and medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformers.

      Q3: What are the Energy Efficiency levels mandated by DOE as of January 1st 2016?

      The new Energy Efficiency levels mandated as of Jan.1st 2016 are as follows:

      Amended Energy Conservation Standards for Low-Voltage Dry-Type Distribution Transformers

      Single phase   Three phase  
      kVA Efficiency (%) kVA Efficiency (%)
      15 97.7 15 97.89
      25 98 30 98.23
      37.5 98.2 45 98.4
      50 98.3 75 98.6
      75 98.5 112.5 98.74
      100 98.6 150 98.83
      167 98.7 225 98.94
      250 98.8 300 99.02
      333 98.9 500 99.14
          750 99.23
          1000 99.28
      Note: All efficiency values are at 35 percent of nameplate-rated load, determined according to the DOE Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers under Appendix A to Subpart K of 10 CFR part 431.

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      Amended Energy Conservation Standards for Medium-Voltage Dry-Type Distribution Transformers

      Single phase       Three phase      
      BIL* kVA 20–45 kV efficiency (%) 46–95 kV efficiency (%) 96 kV efficiency (%) BIL kVA 20–45 kV efficiency (%) 46–95 kV efficiency (%) 96 kV efficiency (%
      15 98.1 97.86 15 97.5 97.18
      25 98.33 98.12 30 97.9 97.63
      37.5 98.49 98.3 45 98.1 97.86
      50 98.6 98.42 75 98.33 98.13
      75 98.73 98.57 98.53 112.5 98.52 98.36
      100 98.82 98.67 98.63 150 98.65 98.51
      167 98.96 98.83 98.8 225 98.82 98.69 98.57
      250 99.07 98.95 98.91 300 98.93 98.81 98.69
      333 99.14 99.03 98.99 500 99.09 98.99 98.89
      500 99.22 99.12 99.09 750 99.21 99.12 99.02
      667 99.27 99.18 99.15 1000 99.28 99.2 99.11
      833 99.31 99.23 99.2 1500 99.37 99.3 99.21
              2000 99.43 99.36 99.28

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              2500 99.47 99.41 99.33
      BIL means basic impulse insulation level              
      Note: All efficiency values are at 50 percent of nameplate rated load, determined according to the DOE Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers under Appendix A to Subpart K of 10 CFR part 431.

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  • Can I still sell my C802.2 efficiency transformers that I have in stock after NRCan 2019?
  • What is the energy efficiency regulation compliance in the U.S. and Canada?

      In the past several years, there has been an accelerated rate of change in updating energy efficiency standards for transformers in North America.

      Governments in US and Canada are encouraging users to use higher energy efficiency dry-type transformers, to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. There is also a long term cost savings in operating higher efficiency transformers translated in lower energy usage, lower cooling cost, etc.

      In U.S.A. the Department of Energy (DOE) has mandated new higher efficiency levels effective Jan. 1st 2016.

      In Canada Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) published SOR/2016-311 which amends the Energy Efficiency Act to align the via amendment 14 the minimum energy efficiency levels for dry type transformers to the ones implemented by DOE in Jan 2016.

      The new NRCan 2019 regulation is going to be enforced across Canada on May 1st, 2019. The Ontario government already adopted these new efficiency levels by publishing the ON Reg.404-12 which in schedule 6 defines the new energy efficiency levels that dry type transformers sold in ON must comply with starting Jan.1st 2018 (Ontario Energy Efficiency Compliance).

      The rest of Canada (including Quebec) is still following the current energy efficiency levels prescribed by CSA C802.2, until the new NRCan regulations come in effect on May 1st 2019.

      To help our valued customers in estimating the cost savings resulting from upgrading their old dry type transformer to the new DOE2016/NRCan2019 efficiency levels, HPS has developed an Energy Savings Calculator available on its website. To find out how HPS can help reduce your energy consumption, click here.

      To visit the Canadian Gazette for more information about the Canadian energy efficiency standards, click here.

      For the Ontario Energy efficiency regulation please click here.

      To view an electronic copy of the U.S. DOE energy efficient standards, click here.

  • What are the environmental benefits of this change?

      According to DOE, the new amendments to the existing efficiency standards would further decrease electrical losses by about 8 percent for liquid-immersed transformers, 13 percent for medium-voltage dry-type transformers, and 18 percent for low-voltage dry-type transformers. In addition, about 264.7 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions will be avoided, equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions of about 51.75 million automobiles.

      Beginning in 2016, newly amended energy efficiency standards for distribution transformers will save up to $12.9 billion in total costs to consumers — ultimately saving families and businesses money while also reducing energy consumption. The new distribution transformer standards will also save 3.63 quadrillion British thermal units of energy for equipment sold over the 30-year period of 2016 to 2045.

  • What are the new Energy Efficiency levels in place for the Canada in 2019?

      Transformers have been and remain an essential part of our electrical infrastructure. Everywhere we look there is a transformer supplying power to industrial, commercial or residential applications.

      In the past decades the greenhouse gas emissions and the effects on our planet have become the focus of many governments, agencies and individuals. Energy generation is a major contributor to the greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to widespread efforts to make energy generation more environmentally friendly, there is also a goal to lower energy consumption within most industrial, commercial and residential areas. Achieving increased energy efficiency levels for equipment and consumer products has become a priority for many manufacturers.

      Improving the energy efficiency of new transformers is a primary goal of the Department of Natural Resources (French: Ministère des Ressources naturelles), operating under the FIP applied title Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). It has the legal authority to define efficiency levels and enforce compliance. Environmentally conscious consumers also recognize that buying a higher energy efficiency transformer will have a societal payback over many years.

      NRCan has established new and more stringent Energy Efficiency levels for Transformers in Canada effective May 1st, 2019 that is generically referred to as NRCan 2019. The new efficiency levels for Medium Voltage Liquid-Filled, Medium Voltage and Low Voltage Dry-Type Distribution Transformers are defined byNRCan and largely follow the U.S.A.’s efficiency leves in the DOE’s 2016 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) title 10 part 431. The new efficiency levels are expected to reduce energy losses by an average of 18% in low-voltage dry-type distribution transformers and 13% for medium-voltage dry-type transformers, over the current C802.2 efficiency levels.

      To put the benefits of this change in perspective, the U.S.A’s DOE projects savings up to $12.9 billion (U.S.) in total costs to consumers and 3.63 quadrillion Btu of energy over a 30 year period. In addition, about 265 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions will be avoided, equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions of about 52 million automobiles. Canada can expect similar benefits but scaled to Canada’s overall economy.

      The subject of energy efficiency for transformers raises two main considerations:

      (1) Under normal operation a transformer is always on (typically at 35% average loading), making any energy efficiency improvements more significant over an extended period of time. This means that customers will be rewarded in two manners: they are reducing greenhouse gas emissions and there is an economic payback through reduced energy costs.? Considering the life expectancy of a transformer and the fact that the transformer will be on 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for the next 25-30 years, even small energy efficiency improvements will pay dividends for decades.? A secondary benefit is that more efficient transformers generate less heat, and in many cases this translates into lower costs to cool the environment in which they are utilized.

      (2) The currently mandated energy efficiency levels are already hovering around the 98-99% mark, depending on the type of transformer and ratings. This means that any further efficiency improvements become more challenging to achieve, typically requiring more and/or better core and conductor materials.? This will directly impact the cost of the transformer in most cases. However, as noted in point 1 above, there is an economic benefit to offset the higher initial transformer costs. The new NRCan 2019 compliant transformers that will come on the market will also be somewhat heavier than the current C802.2 efficiency level transformers.

      Hammond Power Solutions (HPS) has an online Energy Savings Calculator to help to our customers determine the savings they can achieve by installing a higher efficiency transformer.? It includes a comparison of transformers with older efficiencies to those of higher efficiency (NRCan 2019 and DOE 2016) as well as specifics of the application and the customer’s cost of energy.

      The Electricity savings resulting from upgrading one three phase 75 kVA transformer can be translated into one of the following:

      • 1.19 Metric Tons of CO2
      • 121 Gallons of Gasoline
      • About 1/6th of the energy used by an average household annually
      • Planting 28 Trees
      • 0.9 Acres of Forest
      • Recycling 0.34 Metric Tons of Waste
      • Savings of $166 per year at $0.12 per kW-Hr

      Dense Forest

      At some kVA ratings NEMA Premium energy efficiency levels meet or slightly exceed the DOE 2016 levels, some are slightly below the new requirements.? However, the NEMA Premium products are optional within the market today, and many consumers do not take advantage of the benefits they afford.? Hence, the DOE will require that all transformers manufactured after January 1st, 2016 will meet the new efficiency levels.

      The environmental impact and savings for our customers resulting from the DOE changes are positive and significant.? HPS fully embraces and supports this change, and the environmental benefits our society will receive as a result.? We proudly offer high quality transformers meeting the most stringent Energy efficiency requirements today and will be in a position to support the migration to the new DOE 2016 higher-efficiency designs for our valued partners and customers, beginning in the latter half of 2015.

      View HPS Transformer Savings Analyzer.

  • Will NEMA Premium transformers continue to be offered?
  • Did the DOE 2016 and NRCan 2019 efficiency regulations result in product brand changes for HPS?

      The obsolete HPS TP1/C802.2 rated Sentinel, Synergy, Centurion and Express lines were still available in the Canadian until the NRCan 2019 efficiency levels (same as DOE 2016) were mandated. In addition the older medium voltage Millennium line was still available in Canada until NRCan 2019 May 1st, 2019.

      The older lines were replaced with DOE 2016 and NRCan 2019 compliant low voltage Sentinal G (general purpose), Sentinel K (K rated), Sentinel H (harmonic mitigation) Express G and Tribune E (DIT, Canada only) product lines. In addition the medium voltage Millennium G, Millennium E and EnduraCoil lines also meet the updated DOE 2016 and NRCan 2019 efficiency levels. While exempt from regulations, the Titan N encapsulated transformers often meet or exceed the DOE 2016 and NRCan 2019 regulations.

  • What should I do if I need to quote a project that will ship after NRCan 2019 is implemented?
  • How will the new DOE 2016 and NRCan 2019 compliant Sentinel G, K and H be different from the older TP1/C802.2 lines?
  • Can I still sell my TP1 efficiency transformers that I have in stock?